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Daily Fish Oil Supplement May Not Help Your Heart

By Dennis Thompson

HealthDay Reporter

MONDAY, March 17, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- People who take fish oil capsules may not be getting the heart-health benefits they desired, according to a pair of new research reports.

Both studies found that the omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil supplements do not provide any significant protection against heart disease, when compared to other types of dietary fats.

"Looking at the 17 randomized clinical trials that we combined, the majority of the trials -- especially the more recent and large-scale ones -- showed consistently little or no significant effect on reducing coronary heart disease events," said Dr. Rajiv Chowdhury, lead author of a comprehensive review of nutrition research related to fats.

Of the range of fats studied, only trans fats showed a clear negative effect on heart health, according to the review published in the March 18 Annals of Internal Medicine by Chowdhury, a cardiovascular epidemiologist at the University of Cambridge, and colleagues.

Trans fats can still be found in processed foods -- look for the words "hydrogenated" or "partially hydrogenated" in the ingredient list.

Saturated fats, long considered a dietary no-no, appeared to pose no additional risk for heart disease according to recent research, Chowdhury said. They carried about the same cardiac risk as unsaturated fats, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids.

Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. They can be found in butter, lard, cheese and cream, as well as the fatty white areas on cuts of meat. By contrast, unsaturated fats are liquid at room temperature -- think of vegetable cooking oil or olive oil.

A second study also came to the same conclusion regarding omega-3 fatty acids, via a different route. This study had been reviewing the use of omega-3s for eye health, but researchers used their data to look at whether the supplements also helped prevent heart disease.

That study found no reduction in heart attack, stroke or heart failure among almost 1,100 people taking omega-3 supplements, compared to similar numbers of people taking other supplements for eye health or just an inactive placebo. It appeared online March 17 in JAMA Internal Medicine.

The meta-analysis performed by Chowdhury's team involved data from 72 studies with more than 600,000 participants from 18 nations. The team combined study findings to assess the heart health benefits of all types of dietary fat -- saturated fat, unsaturated fat, and the omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids.

Until now, doctors have said that saturated fats increase "bad" LDL cholesterol, which can cause plaques to form in your arteries and raise your risk of a heart attack or stroke.

At the same time, omega-3 fatty acids were said to improve heart health because it increases your level of "good" HDL cholesterol. Good cholesterol is believed to help the body rid itself of bad cholesterol.

日期:2014年3月18日 - 来自[Health News]栏目

Study Questions Fish Oil Brain Claims

By Serena Gordon

HealthDay Reporter

WEDNESDAY, Sept. 25 (HealthDay News) -- If you eat a lot of fish or take fish oil supplements hoping to boost your brain health, a new study has disappointing findings for you.

The study, published online Sept. 25 in the journal Neurology, found no difference in memory and thinking test scores based on levels of omega-3 fatty acids in the blood.

"We looked at the association of blood biomarkers of [omega-3 fatty acids] and measure of cognitive [thinking] function and found no statistically significant association between baseline levels or over time," said the study's lead author, Eric Ammann, a doctoral candidate in the department of epidemiology at the University of Iowa in Iowa City.

However, this study's findings run counter to other research that has suggested that omega-3 fatty acids can help protect the aging brain. A study published in the February 2012 issue of Neurology suggested that middle-aged and elderly people who regularly ate foods rich in omega-3s scored better on tests of visual memory, attention and abstract thinking compared to those who consumed fewer omega-3 foods. The study also found that people who consumed less omega-3s tended to have smaller brain volume overall than those who ate more omega-3 foods.

There are plausible biological mechanisms for why omega-3s might improve brain health, according to background information in the current study. One particular omega-3, called docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is a structural component of brain tissue, the study authors noted. DHA also has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which may slow deterioration in the brain.

Ammann's hypothesis going into the study was that omega-3 fatty acids would have a protective effect on thinking and memory in women 65 and older.

Data for the study came from the U.S. Women's Health Initiative study. The researchers included information from more than 2,000 women between 65 and 80 years old who had normal thinking and memory at the start of the study.

The women took tests on thinking and memory each year for an average of six years. Blood levels of omega-3s were taken at the start of the study.

Overall, the researchers found no changes in mental function based on the levels of omega-3s in the blood.

There were two tests -- fine motor speed and verbal fluency -- that showed a slightly significant difference between high levels of omega-3s and low levels of omega-3s, according to the study.

"There were two marginally significant findings between high and low omega-3s, and to some extent those findings align with other studies, but we did look at about 14 different outcomes, so by chance, we would expect to find some on the cusp of statistical significance," explained Ammann.

Ammann said the researchers don't recommend changing your diet based on their findings. "This was a select group of women who were older and healthy at baseline. It's one piece of evidence on the effect of omega-3s and cognitive function," he said. "Our results are looking at the short-term effect of omega-3s. We don't know for someone [who has higher levels] for a longer time, if that would have a more gradual, cumulative effect over time."

日期:2013年9月27日 - 来自[Health News]栏目


【摘要】  目的 探讨有晶状体眼在玻璃体切割联合硅油填充术后硅油进入前房的处理方法及原因分析。方法 对20例因不同原因行常规玻璃体切割联合硅油填充手术的有晶状体眼患者,对术后发生硅油进入前房的程度不同采取不同处理方法,并根据其发生的原因进行回顾性分析。结果 有3例因进入前房的硅油量少,因未引起并发症未行前房硅油取出,3个月后取出玻璃体腔和前房的硅油,视网膜复位;17例进入前房硅油量多的病例, 10例仅单纯取出前房硅油;有2例二次行巩膜外垫压术及1例巩膜外垫压联合环扎术,术中发生硅油进入前房;3例硅油填充术后视网膜未完全复位再次行玻璃体手术治疗;1例因眼压低,眼球萎缩伴下方视网膜浅脱离,未能作硅油取出。所有病例均在硅油进入前房1周内取出前房硅油,取出前房硅油后未出现严重角膜并发症,1例因多次手术眼球萎缩。结论 有晶状体眼在玻璃体切割联合硅油填充术后硅油进入前房原因主要为眼外伤、高度近视、术中医源性损伤等造成悬韧带损伤。对于有晶状体眼硅油进入前房应注意患者体位及观察角膜、眼压、视网膜复位情况,尽早取出前房硅油,有瞳孔阻滞性青光眼的患者立即行手术治疗,尽可能保护角膜、视网膜及有效的视力。

【关键词】  有晶状体眼;前房;硅油

 【Abstract】 Objective To investigate the ocular lens in vitrectomy combined with silicone oil after silicone oil injection into the anterior chamber and cause analysis.Methods 20 patients for various reasons, routine vitrectomy combined with silicone oil surgery, according to the different extent of silicone oil in postoperative anterior chamber took different treatment, and retrospective analysis.Results There were 3 cases of silicone oil into the anterior chamber, without complications due to anterior chamber silicone oil is not removed, removed the vitreous cavity in 3 months, and the retina reset; in 17 cases of more silicone into the anterior chamber, 10 cases simply removed the anterior chamber silicone oil; 2 cases did secondary line Scleral buckling surgery and 1 case did Scleral buckling combined with cerclage. Silicone oil into the anterior chamber occurred. 3 cases of silicone oil is not completely reset after retinal vitreous surgery performed again. 1 patient because of hypotony, eyeball atrophy and shallow retinal detachment did not remove silicone oil. 1 case occurred eyeball atrophy because of many surgeries.Conclusion In phakic eyes after vitrectomy combined with silicone oil injection into the anterior chamber silicone oil,the main reasons were ocular trauma, high myopia, intraoperative iatrogenic injury caused by suspensory ligament injury. For silicone oil into the anterior chamber phakic patients we should pay attention to posture and corneal, intraocular pressure, retinal reattachment, anterior chamber silicone oil remove as soon as possible, patients with pupillary block glaucoma should undergo surgery immediately, so as to protect the cornea, retina and effective vision.

  【Key words】 phakic; anterior chamber; silicone oil

  近年来,随着玻璃体切割术在临床上的广泛应用及手术技巧的不断提高,采用玻璃体切割联合硅油填充治疗复杂视网膜脱离及眼外伤取得了良好的效果。 然而硅油填充又会产生诸多并发症,硅油进前房就是其中之一,如处理不及时或不当,不仅手术失败,还会导致继发青光眼、角膜变性等严重并发症。本文就本院在2008年8月—2011年3月20例常规行玻璃体切割联合硅油填充手术的有晶体眼患者术后早期出现硅油进入前房并发症的处理进行回顾分析,并对可能导致该并发症的原因和预防方法作一探讨。现报告如下。

  1 资料与方法

  1.1 对象选择

  常规行玻璃体切割联合硅油填充手术的有晶体眼患者20例(20眼),术后发生硅油进入前房。患者20例:男16例16眼,女4例4眼;年龄14~68 (平均39) 岁;外伤性视网膜脱离5例(其中锯齿缘断离3 例、眼球穿通伤2例),复杂性视网膜脱离9例,增殖性糖尿病视网膜病变4例,视网膜静脉周围炎2例。其中2例硅油眼术后视网膜再次脱离行巩膜外垫压术,1例行巩膜外垫压+环扎术,术中发生硅油进入前房;17例发生于玻璃体切割术后的2~14天之内(其中1例取出前房硅油2天后,硅油再度进入前房并形成瞳孔阻滞性青光眼)。13例(13眼)患者发生瞳孔阻滞性青光眼。前房内大滴硅油,直径一般大于5mm,位于瞳孔区或充满前房,瞳孔散大,直径接近或小于油滴。眼压明显升高(30~60mmHg,中位数42.3mmHg)。

  1.2 方法

  3例因进入前房的硅油量少、应用缩瞳剂(1%~2%Piloeapin)后改变体位不引起瞳孔阻滞、眼压不高或能控制且视网膜复位良好者应用缩瞳剂缩小瞳孔以免更多硅油进入前房,故未作前房硅油取出,取俯卧位或左右侧卧位休息,观察眼压2~3个月后视网膜在位,取出玻璃体腔及前房硅油。17例因进入前房的硅油量多,眼压高且不能控制,自然缩瞳后易引起瞳孔阻滞,需急诊手术取出前房内硅油。术中行下方角膜缘穿刺( 多数病例选择在6点钟位 ) 注入粘弹剂,穿刺刀对对侧角膜缘切开排出硅油,置换前房内残存粘弹剂。为防止后房硅油术中进入前房,术中前房注入卡米可林,若术中发现有虹膜局部膨隆或硅油从瞳孔进入前房及二次取前房硅油者行虹膜6点位周边切除。术后给予常规抗炎、降眼压等对症治疗。若经上述处理后眼压仍高,可从睫状体扁平部巩膜穿刺口放出少量硅油降低后房压力。若发现视网膜未复位者需再次行玻璃体手术治疗。

  2 结果

  20例(20眼)硅油填充术后的有晶体眼患者中,3例因进入前房的硅油量少、应用缩瞳剂后改变体位不引起瞳孔阻滞、眼压不高或能控制且视网膜复位良好者未行前房硅油取出,3月后取出玻璃体腔和前房的硅油,视网膜复位。17例进入前房硅油量多的病例,自然缩瞳后易引起瞳孔阻滞性青光眼,10例仅单纯取出前房硅油;裂孔性视网膜脱离硅油填充眼中有2例二次行巩膜外垫压术及1例巩膜外垫压联合环扎术,术中发生硅油进入前房;3例硅油填充术后视网膜未完全复位再次行玻璃体手术治疗;1例因眼压低,眼球萎缩伴下方视网膜浅脱离,未能作硅油取出。术后视力:无光感1例,0.02~0.05 10例,0.06~0.1 7例,0.1~0.3 2例。19例取出硅油的患者,经随访3个月以上,无视网膜脱离复发者。

  3 讨论

  3.1 有晶体眼硅油进入前房的处理

  硅油以其性质稳定、透明性好、表面张力较大,作为玻璃体填充物,为治疗复杂视网膜脱离及眼外伤取得了良好的效果。 然而硅油填充又会产生许多并发症,硅油进入前房就是其中之一,国内资料显示其发生率为0.66%[1,2]。硅油进入前房与角膜内皮接触,阻断角膜营养物质的运输,使角膜内皮功能失代偿导致角膜变性。临床表现主要是大泡性角膜病变或带状角膜变性。此外,大量硅油进入前房,能引起硅油性瞳孔阻滞及房角阻塞,阻断房水循环,继发青光眼。因此一旦发生,应及早采取措施:(1)进入前房的硅油量少,眼压不高或能控制且视网膜复位,可取严格的俯卧位或头低位休息,可最大限度避免硅油接触角膜内皮,但却不能使前房硅油再从悬韧带缝隙处返回玻璃体腔,同时可经常变换头位避免油滴接触某一固定区域角膜内皮,加强眼压观察,2~4周后取出玻璃体腔时冲洗出前房硅油。本文中的5例就属这种情况,其中有2例为增殖性糖尿病视网膜病变,有3例为眼球钝挫伤性视网膜脱离(1例锯齿缘断离,2例裂孔性视网膜脱离)。(2)进入前房的硅油量多,眼压高而不能控制,视网膜复位良好,则需手术治疗,即:角膜缘做对角线前房穿刺切开,注入粘弹剂,对侧排出硅油,术前降眼压缩瞳,术中观察有无晶状体脱位、悬韧带断裂表现,必要时行6点位虹膜周边切除。若视网膜复位不良,则需手术治疗,必要时行晶状体切除术。本文中的l7例因进入前房的硅油量多,眼压高且不能控制,此外其中3例视网膜复位不良,故需再次手术。

  3.2 有晶体眼硅油进入前房的原因



   1 姜燕荣,黎晓新.有晶状体眼硅油入前房继发青光眼的手术处理.中国实用眼科杂志,2000,l8:558-559.

  2 李苏雁,王丈吉,陈钦元.硅油填充术后前房硅油分析.中国实用眼科杂志,2001,19:43-45.

  3 张坚,马勇,谢安明,等.有晶状体眼前房硅油的原因分析和处理.国际眼科杂志,2007,7 (4):1144-1146.

  4 黄新华.有晶体眼硅油入前房并发症的处理及原因分析.国际医药卫生导报, 2005, 11(20):22-23.


日期:2013年2月26日 - 来自[2011年第11卷第2期]栏目

Fish Oil Counters Chemotherapy Weight Loss

March 1, 2011 -- Fish oil may counter weight loss in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, according to a new study published in the online edition of the journal Cancer.

In the study, researchers at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, enrolled 40 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. They were all in the early stages of treatment. Sixteen of those patients took 2.2 grams of fish oil per day, while the remaining 24 received standard care. The study, which lasted about 10 weeks, ran until the patients completed their initial chemotherapy treatments.

The majority of patients in the study who supplemented their diet with fish oil, which is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, either maintained or gained weight. Weight loss is a common side effect of chemotherapy, as patients often lose their appetite. Chemotherapy can also affect a person’s sense of taste, dulling the flavor of foods and making them less appealing. Poor nutritional intake in turn can lead to fatigue, reduced quality of life, and worsening health.

Fish Oil Better Than Standard Care

Sixty-nine percent of the patients given fish oil maintained their weight. Some even gained weight. Less than a third of the patients in the other group kept their weight up. Instead, they lost an average of 2.3 kilograms (about 5 pounds) over the course of the study. Most of the patients taking fish oil also maintained muscle mass for the duration of the study, while the majority of those receiving standard care lost a significant amount of muscle mass.

Previous studies of fish oil’s role in weight maintenance focused on patients with advanced cancers, the study authors write. This study was unique in that it followed newly referred patients. Early intervention to prevent weight loss and related side effects may improve patients’ outcomes and their eligibility for a greater number of cancer treatments, study authors say. However, they say larger, randomized trials need to be conducted to verify their results.

“This holds great promise because currently there is no effective treatment for cancer-related malnutrition,” study co-author Vera Mazurak, PhD, says in a statement.

Health information tailored to the needs of people living with, fighting, and surviving cancer. Sign up today to receive WebMD's trusted Cancer newsletter.

日期:2011年3月2日 - 来自[Health News]栏目

Fish Oil Capsules Don‘t Help Atrial Fibrillation: Study

Nov. 15, 2010 (Chicago) -- Prescription supplements of omega-3 fatty acids do not appear to prevent recurrences of atrial fibrillation, a type of irregular heartbeat that can lead to stroke, researchers report.

"We now have definitive evidence that fish oil did not work for most patients with atrial fibrillation," says Peter R. Kowey, MD, head of cardiology at the Main Line Health Hospital outside Philadelphia.

Kowey presented the findings here at the American Heart Association's annual meeting. They were simultaneously published online by the Journal of the American Medical Association.

Previous Studies of Omega-3 Capsules a Mixed Bag

More than 2 million Americans have atrial fibrillation, or AF, a condition characterized by irregular heart rhythms. Many people with atrial fibrillation are more likely to have a stroke because their weakened heartbeats allow blood to pool in an upper chamber of the heart. Pooled blood is more likely to form clots, which can travel to the brain and block blood flow, causing a stroke.

Eating oily fish such as salmon and albacore tuna that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to be good for heart health, and some people take them for atrial fibrillation.

Smaller studies looking at supplements in people with atrial fibrillation have had conflicting results.

So Kowey and colleagues decided to put a pure prescription formulation of omega-3 to rigorous scientific testing. They studied 663 people, 542 of whom had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, characterized by occasional irregular heartbeats that start and stop suddenly. The rest had persistent atrial fibrillation, marked by longer ongoing episodes.

Participants were given either a placebo or 8 grams of omega-3 supplements daily for seven days, followed by 4 grams a day for the remaining 23 weeks of the trial.

The prescription supplements are sold under the brand name Lovaza. They’re made by GlaxoSmithKline, which funded the trial.

Omega-3 Supplements Fail to Prevent Flare-ups

Over the 24 weeks of the study, 46% of people taking placebo and 52% of people taking omega-3 supplements had atrial fibrillation recurrences.

"There was no significant difference in recurrence rates in people with persistent or paroxysmal AF," Kowey tells WebMD.

A total of 5% of people taking placebo and 4% of people receiving the omega-3 capsules stopped taking the drugs because of side effects, the most common of which were diarrhea and nausea.

OTC Fish Oil Supplements Less Likely to Help

Over-the-counter fish oil supplements are even less likely to help people with atrial fibrillation, Kowey says.

"People are spending an enormous amount of money on stuff that doesn't work," he says.

"This is data that we've needed sorely," says Christine Albert, MD, of Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston. "A lot of people are taking these supplements… [and] they showed no evidence of any benefit."

Mariell Jessup, MD, medical director of the Penn Heart and Vascular Center at the University of Pennsylvania, tells WebMD that the best way to get your omega fatty acids is to eat two to three servings of fish a week.

There is still a possibility that the supplements may work in combination with certain arrhythmia drugs in atrial fibrillation or for other heart conditions, Kowey says.

Health information tailored for those living with heart disease. Sign up today to receive WebMD's trusted Heart newsletter.

日期:2010年11月16日 - 来自[Health News]栏目

Fish Oil No Help Once Alzheimer‘s Starts

Nov. 2, 2010 – The fish oil supplement DHA doesn't slow the relentless progression of Alzheimer's disease -- even if started in the earliest stages of the illness.

The disappointing finding comes from an 18-month, placebo-controlled clinical trial that enrolled 402 people with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease at 51 clinical centers.

"Unfortunately, in all clinical measures we failed to see a clinical benefit of DHA supplementation," reported Joseph F. Quinn, MD, of the Oregon Health and Science University and Portland VA Medical Center at a news conference.

People who eat lots of fish have a significantly lower risk of Alzheimer's disease -- and significantly lower levels of amyloid, the chief component of the plaque that clogs patients' brains.

This benefit is thought to come from the omega-3 fatty acids in fish. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is one of the two major fatty acids in fish oil, and is the most abundant fatty acid in the human brain. The other omega-3 fatty acid in fish, EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), is not found in the brain.

Quinn and colleagues reasoned that DHA supplements might slow Alzheimer's disease. But even if they looked only at the subset of patients in the very earliest stages of the illness, the treatment had no effect.


Alzheimer's Protection With Earlier DHA?

Blood tests showed that treatment with 2 grams per day of an alga-derived DHA supplement significantly increased patients' blood and spinal-fluid levels of DHA compared to patients taking placebo pills.? So the negative finding wasn't due to treated patients not taking their DHA, or to patients on placebo taking DHA on the side.

"Maybe the study just started treatment too late," Quinn said. "Researchers are becoming more aware that the events that increase amyloid in the brain occur long before clinical disease. … These events are almost complete by the time a person is diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease."

Quinn tells WebMD that studies linking fish consumption to lower Alzheimer's risk look at lifelong fish consumption -- not a fish-heavy diet begun only after Alzheimer's symptoms appear.

The study "didn't answer the question of whether DHA -- taken over long periods of time and several years prior to disease onset -- could have helped prevent participants from developing the disease," Duffy MacKay, ND, vice president for scientific and regulatory affairs for the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), said in a news release. CRN is a lobbying group that represents the supplement industry; Duffy was not involved in the Quinn study.

Quinn noted that studies to examine the long-term effects of DHA supplements would be costly and time consuming. A study to look at DHA use during the prediagnosis stage of Alzheimer's would need to follow 700 patients for three years. A study evaluating DHA use in people whose family history puts them at higher risk of Alzheimer's would require 4,000 participants and take five years.

The Quinn study appears in the Nov. 3 special issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association dedicated to issues regarding aging. Quinn spoke at a teleconference arranged by the journal.

Quinn is listed as a patent holder for the form of DHA used in the study, although he says he did not ask to be named in the patent and that he has waived all potential royalties from the patent.

日期:2010年11月3日 - 来自[Health News]栏目

Study: Fish Oil Doesn‘t Affect Postpartum Depression

Oct. 19, 2010 -- Taking fish oil (DHA)  supplements during pregnancy, widely thought to help mothers' moods and children's cognitive skills, does not appear to reduce the risk of postpartum depression of mothers or boost the language development and cognitive skills of their children, according to a new Australian study.

''Our data suggest that there is no need for apparently healthy pregnant women to take DHA supplements," says researcher Maria Makrides, PhD, deputy director of the Women's and Children's Health Research Institute and professor of human nutrition at the University of Adelaide in Australia.

She also found no differences in cognitive and language skills of the infants at 18 months, whether their mothers took DHA supplements or did not.

However, a spokesperson for the supplement industry sees weaknesses in the study.

The study is published in the Journal of the American Medical Association.

DHA, Moms, and Infants

In the past few years, studies in Europe and the U.S. have found that higher intakes of fatty acids known as n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LSPUFA) from fish and seafood during pregnancy are linked with a reduced risk of symptoms of depression in mothers after they give birth and an improvement in children's language and cognitive skills.

It's believed that the DHA or docosahexaenoic acid in fish oil may be the reason for the benefit.

Expert guidelines recommend that women eat an average of 200 milligrams of DHA a day during pregnancy, although most women in the U.S. and other countries eat very little fish and don't get enough DHA.

Studies of DHA's effect in human pregnancies have yielded mixed results, Makrides says.

DHA and Depression: A Closer Look

Makrides and her colleagues evaluated 2,320 women randomly assigned from the 21st week of pregnancy on to take either three 500-milligram fish oil capsules (containing DHA) daily or three 500-milligram capsules of vegetable oil daily.

The mothers took a standard test about depression symptoms at six weeks and six months after delivery.

The researches evaluated 694 children at age 18 months, testing such developmental skills as sensorimotor development, memory, simple problem solving, and language.

At six months after birth, the percent of women with high levels of depressive symptoms did not differ much between the two groups, Makrides found. While 9.6% of those taking DHA had high levels of depression, 11% of the mothers taking the vegetable oil capsules did.

In the subgroup of women who had a previous history of depression, they found a 3% or 4% reduction in symptoms, she says. "It may be that these women will benefit from supplementation, but other studies are needed to confirm this," she says.

The mothers taking DHA did have fewer preterm births before 34 weeks' gestation. While 1% of the DHA mothers had a baby before 34 weeks, 2.25% of those in the vegetable oil group did. However, more of the DHA mothers went over the due date enough to require interventions such as induced labor or cesarean deliveries.

When tested at 18 months, the average cognitive and language scores of the children did not differ between groups.

It could be that a longer-term assessment is needed, Makrides says. "We are already planning to assess all the children again at 4 years."

Makrides reports serving on the scientific advisory boards of Nestle, Fonterra (a dairy company), and Nutricia (a medical nutrition company).

日期:2010年10月21日 - 来自[Health News]栏目

Gulf Oil Spill‘s Toll on Nation‘s Beaches

July 28, 2010 -- One in five beaches off the Gulf of Mexico has been closed this season because of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, according to a new report issued by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC), an environmental action group headquartered in New York City.

There were 2,239 beach closings and advisory days issued along beaches in Alabama, Louisiana, Florida, and Mississippi since the April 22 spill -- a number that is 10 times higher than beach closings and advisory days in these areas for any reason in 2009, says David Beckman, director of the NRDC's water program. To date, there have been no official beach closures or advisories in Texas, which also is adjacent to the Gulf of Mexico.?

The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred about 50 miles southeast of Venice, La., after an explosion and fire damaged a Transocean oil rig, causing it to burn for hours and sink. As a result, oil has streaked shorelines along the Gulf.

Calling the oil spill an "'unprecedented and unfolding disaster," Beckman says that "oil has heavy metal and toxic chemicals that you may be breathing in on a contaminated beach." Coming into direct contact with the oil may cause a host of health problems including headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, and skin rashes and irritation.

"If you are at a beach where you can see or smell oil, leave," he advises. "In addition to ruining your day at the beach, by breathing in oil instead of sea air, there can be direct health impacts."

Jon Devine, an attorney with the NRDC's water program, says that "we need to take new and strong action to make sure that companies have adequate clean-up procedures in the event of another disaster and change policies to make sure something like this doesn’t have to happen again."

Using cleaner energy sources and not rushing to do any more deep-water drilling are part of the solution, he says.

2009 Beach Water Quality Ratings

This is the 20th year that NRDC has issued the report on water quality at beaches. In previous years, the group only rated beach water quality using a five-star system based on pollution problems, monitoring of pollution, and how quickly or how well beaches warn beachgoers about potential contamination.

In 2009, the number of closing and advisory days at ocean, bay, and Great Lakes beaches topped 18,000 for the fifth consecutive year, the new report shows. This is the sixth highest level in the 20 years that the group has been tracking water quality information.

What can be done to clean up our beaches? A lot. Devine says.

"Policy makers can do a lot to clean up the sources of storm water and sewage pollution, and we encourage them to do that by broadly implementing 'green' infrastructure," Devine says. This involves using vegetation -- green strips on highways, parking lots, and roofs -- to absorb storm water where it falls and make sure this water doesn’t pick up human and animal waste on its way to the beach.

日期:2010年7月30日 - 来自[Health News]栏目
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