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An Evidence-based Approach to Vitamins and Minerals: Health Implications and Intake Recommendations,

来源:《美国临床营养学杂志》 作者:Donald B McCormick 2008-12-28

摘要: by Jane Higdon, 2003, 268 pages, hardcover, $59。 Thieme, New York。Donald B McCormick2245 Deer Ridge Drive Stone Mountain, GA 30087 E-mail: biocdbm{at}emory。eduThis book comes from and is endorsed by the Linus Pauling Institute (LPI) at Oregon State University。 As stated by Higdon in the prefa......


by Jane Higdon, 2003, 268 pages, hardcover, $59. Thieme, New York.

Donald B McCormick

2245 Deer Ridge Drive
Stone Mountain, GA 30087
E-mail: biocdbm{at}emory.edu

This book comes from and is endorsed by the Linus Pauling Institute (LPI) at Oregon State University. As stated by Higdon in the preface, the LPI is "dedicated to training and supporting new researchers in the interdisciplinary science of nutrition and optimum health, as well as to educating the public about the science of optimum nutrition." The author further states that the goal of the book is "to provide clinicians and consumers with a practical evidence-based reference to the rapidly expanding field of micronutrient nutrition." The underlying tenet of the book, expressed in the Preface, is that there is "the potential for micronutrients to prevent and treat chronic diseases at intakes higher than those required to prevent deficiency." Yet it is generally recognized that there is real concern about exaggerated health claims from numerous supplement manufacturers and salespersons. In the foreword, Bruce Ames, a biochemist who is a strong proponent of the consumption of micronutrients in amounts greater than the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs), states that there are "potential health benefits of tuning up people's micronutrient metabolism." He also writes that there is a "need to educate the public about the crucial importance of optimal nutrition and the potential health benefits of something as simple and affordable as a daily multivitamin/multimineral supplement."

From the above, it is clear that the author and her colleagues recognize that some persons may benefit from intakes of micronutrients that are greater than those currently recommended by the committees that adjudicate the RDAs via the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. This extra need, which a small fraction of the US population is known to have, leads the author to include in each chapter and again in the closing section, "The Linus Pauling Institute's Prescription for Healthy Living," an LPI recommendation that essentially every person should take a daily supplement containing 100% of the RDA of most micronutrients in addition to whatever is provided in his or her diet.

It is important to understand that RDAs are meant to be sufficient (not necessarily optimal) to meet the needs of nearly all healthy persons in a particular life-stage group, and, indeed, they represent amounts that are only modestly larger than those known to prevent deficiency. It is equally important, however, to recognize that, for most if not all nutrients, we do not yet know what is "optimal" for any life-stage group. The quantitative meaning of optimal as applied to nutrition is arguable. Hence, it may be somewhat presumptuous to believe the LPI recommendations will help in "tuning up people's micronutrient metabolism" and lead to "optimal nutrition," whatever that might be. In fact, it can be imagined that the concentrations of some micronutrients that are achieved with LPI recommendations, although well below known toxic amounts, may enrich the blood and other tissues of a person to the point of making him or her a better nutrient source for some pathogenic organisms that also require the micronutrient. Despite the current vagueness and general uncertainty about the amount of a specific micronutrient that is optimal for anyone, the LPI-recommended intake of a supplement in addition to dietary acquisition probably would rarely be harmful and may be helpful to some who require more micronutrients because of defects in absorption or utilization.

This book is written in an organized and thoughtful manner and provides an up-to-date synopsis of our knowledge of micronutrients. Overall, it is a good summary of what clinicians and consumers may want to know.



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